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Visualizzazione post con etichetta USA. Mostra tutti i post

sabato 31 agosto 2019

Class action USA contro APPLE e SAMSUNG !

In seguito, anche, ai risultati dei test fatti per il Chicago Reporter  dieci cittadini americani hanno avviato una class action contro ... addirittura Samsung e Apple per :  ....

"    negligenza, violazione della garanzia, frode del consumatore e arricchimento ingiusto, in cerca di danni effettivi, i costi del monitoraggio medico, la restituzione e il risarcimento ingiuntivo. "

Interessante anche vedere come è stato strutturato:

- lo samrtphone nella cultura americana
- le due aziende elettroniche commercializzano e pubblicizzano gli smartphone come sicuri anche vicini al corpo (con copie di immagini pubblicitarie ..., link a video ...)
- danni alla esposizione da radiofrequenze con riferimento agli appelli di scienziati, allo studio NTP
- sperimentazione sui telefoni  sul protocollo FCC
- test effettuati per contro del giornale Chicago Reporter che dimostrano la non correttezza della procedura che non misura il reale pericolo


Da leggere ...


Rimane sempre l'amarezza che la traduzione in Italiano della class action non porta a nessun strumento utile.   In particolare in Italia rimane il gap principale, essenziale:  chi paga i costi della ... giustizia ?!

giovedì 29 agosto 2019

Chicago Reporter: i telefoni hanno radiazioni ben oltre i limiti US

Ha avuto una certo eco nella stampa americana e così in diversi giornali nel mondo una sperimentazione eseguita da un giornalista investigativo di questo giornale con un gruppo di tecnici che hanno dimostrato come telefoni popolari come iPhone 7 determinano valori di emissione almeno doppi di quei limiti per i quali la FCC aveva dato l'autorizzazione alla vendita.

Ricordo che tutto parte dalla sperimentazione fatta in Francia che ha portato ad una presa di posizione delle autorità governative che stanno 'studiando' la problematica ...



E' stata qui contestata la metodologia di misurazione (che aggiungo parte da una visione MINIMALISTA secondo la quale gli unici problemi sono il riscaldamento del corpo, quindì attenzione  solo gli effetti termici) che ad es. prevede la misurazione a 25 mm dal corpo (cosa che normalmente è al 99% fittizia e non risponde alla realtà) e che il test è fatto su un manichino di dimensioni di un Marines americano (un bel bestione,  praticamente) ben diverso dalla corporatura di una fetta notevole degli utilizzatori attuali, continuativi degli smartphone !

Un commento successivo di Devra Davis mi è piaciuto molto: 
questo metodo di misurazione è datato 1996, quando un gallone di benzina costava 1,25 $ ed un telefono cellulare 2.000 $ pari agli ordierni 3200 $!   Quindi era utilizzato da business man, militari e per telefonate in media di 6 min, visti i costi di connessione telefonica ...     Situazione molto molto diversa dall'attuale !!! 

Vediamo cosa partorirà l'ente federale americano.




vedere news video https://www.msn.com/en-us/tv/video/chicago-tribune-fcc-investigating-phone-radiation-findings/vp-AAGeXBW



We tested popular cellphones for radiofrequency radiation. Now the FCC is investigating.
By SAM ROE
CHICAGO TRIBUNE |
AUG 21, 2019 | 12:27 PM
  
The Apple iPhone 7 was set to operate at full power and secured below a tub of clear liquid, specially formulated to simulate human tissue.
With the push of a button, a robotic arm swung into action, sending a pencil-thin probe dipping into the tub. For 18 minutes, it repeatedly measured the amount of radiofrequency radiation the liquid was absorbing from the cellphone.

This test, which was paid for by the Tribune and conducted according to federal guidelines at an accredited lab, produced a surprising result: Radiofrequency radiation exposure from the iPhone 7 — one of the most popular smartphones ever sold — measured over the legal safety limit and more than double what Apple reported to federal regulators from its own testing.

The Federal Communications Commission, which is responsible for regulating phones, states on its website that if a cellphone has been approved for sale, the device “will never exceed” the maximum allowable exposure limit. But this phone, in an independent lab inspection, had done exactly that.

The Tribune tested three more brand-new iPhone 7s at full power, and these phones also measured over the exposure limit. In all, 11 models from four companies were tested, with varying results.

The Tribune’s testing, though limited, represents one of the most comprehensive independent investigations of its kind, and the results raise questions about whether cellphones always meet safety standards set up to protect the public.

After reviewing the lab reports from the Tribune’s tests, the FCC said it would take the rare step of conducting its own testing over the next couple of months.

“We take seriously any claims on non-compliance with the RF (radiofrequency) exposure standards and will be obtaining and testing the subject phones for compliance with FCC rules,” agency spokesman Neil Grace said.

The Tribune set out a year ago to explore an important question: Are cellphones as safe as manufacturers and government regulators say?

Though it’s unclear whether radiofrequency radiation from cellphones can increase cancer risk or lead to other harm, that question is increasingly pressing given the widespread use of cellphones today. Many children and teenagers may face years of exposure.

The newspaper’s testing was not meant to rank phone models for safety – only 11 models were examined, and in most cases just one device was tested. Nor is it possible to know whether any of the cellphones that tested above limits could cause harm. Two of the phone manufacturers, including Apple, disputed the Tribune’s results, saying the lab used by the newspaper had not tested the phones the same way they do.

But the results of the Tribune’s investigation contribute to an ongoing debate about the possible risks posed by radiofrequency radiation from cellphones, and they offer evidence that existing federal standards may not be adequate to protect the public.

Industry officials and manufacturers emphasize that before a new model can be brought to market, a sample phone must be tested and comply with an exposure standard for radiofrequency radiation. But manufacturers are allowed to select the testing lab — and only a single phone needs to pass in order for millions of others to be sold.

Companies testing a new phone for compliance with the safety limit also are permitted to position the phone up to 25 millimeters away from the body — nearly an inch — depending on how the device is used. That’s because the testing standards were adopted in the 1990s, when people frequently carried cellphones on belt clips.

In one phase of the Tribune testing, all phones were positioned at the same distance from the simulated body tissue that the manufacturers chose for their own tests — from 5 to 15 millimeters, depending on the model. Apple, for instance, tests at 5 millimeters.

But people now often carry phones closer to the body, in their pockets, which increases their potential exposure to radiofrequency radiation.
To assess this kind of exposure, the Tribune asked its lab to conduct a second phase of testing, placing the phones 2 millimeters away from the simulated body — closer than any of the manufacturers’ own tests and far less than the maximum distance allowed by the FCC.

The 2-millimeter distance was chosen to estimate the potential exposure for an owner carrying the phone in a pants or shirt pocket. Under those conditions, most of the models tested yielded results that were over the exposure limit, sometimes far exceeding it.

At 2 millimeters, the results from a Samsung Galaxy S8 were more than five times the standard.

The Government Accountability Office, Congress’ research arm, recommended in 2012 that the FCC reassess the exposure limit and its testing requirements, saying that because phones weren’t measured while against the body, authorities could not ensure exposures were under the standard.

Seven years later — after a lengthy period of public comment — the FCC came to its conclusion. The agency announced this month that the existing standard sufficiently protects the public and should remain in place.

Few other government officials have acted in recent years to address the possible risks of radiofrequency radiation from cellphones. But in California, the state Public Health Department in 2017 issued rare guidance on how concerned consumers could reduce exposure.

Among the advice: Don’t carry cellphones in pockets.




Apple, Samsung respond
When informed of the Tribune’s test results and provided with the laboratory’s 100-page lab report, Apple disputed the findings, saying they were not performed in a way that properly assesses iPhones.

The Tribune’s tests were conducted by RF Exposure Lab, a facility in San Marcos, Calif., that is recognized by the FCC as accredited to test for radiofrequency radiation from electronic devices. For 15 years, the lab has done radiation testing for wireless companies seeking government approval for new products.

Lab owner Jay Moulton said all the Tribune’s tests were done in accordance with detailed FCC rules and guidelines.
“We’re not doing anything extraordinary or different here,” Moulton said. Any qualified lab "should be able to grab a phone off the shelf and test it to see if it meets requirements.”

Apple, one of the world’s most iconic brands, would not say specifically what it thought was wrong with the Tribune’s tests or reveal how the company measures its phones for potential radiofrequency radiation exposure.
Still, based on Apple’s feedback, the Tribune retested the iPhones in the investigation as well as an additional iPhone 7, making a change aimed at activating sensors that would reduce power.

Once again, the iPhone 7s produced results over the safety limit, while an iPhone 8 that previously measured over the standard came in under.
When informed of the new results, Apple officials declined to be interviewed and requested the Tribune put its questions in writing. The newspaper did, submitting three dozen, but Apple did not answer any of them.

Apple then issued a statement, repeating that the Tribune test results for the iPhone 7s “were inaccurate due to the test setup not being in accordance with procedures necessary to properly assess the iPhone models.”

“All iPhone models, including iPhone 7, are fully certified by the FCC and in every other country where iPhone is sold,” the statement said. “After careful review and subsequent validation of all iPhone models tested in the (Tribune) report, we confirmed we are in compliance and meet all applicable … exposure guidelines and limits.”

Apple did not explain what it meant by “careful review and subsequent validation.”

The three Samsung phones tested by the Tribune — the Galaxy S8, Galaxy S9 and Galaxy J3 — were positioned at 10 or 15 millimeters from the body, the distances chosen by the company in accordance with FCC guidelines. In these tests, the devices measured under the safety limit.
But when the phones were tested at 2 millimeters from the simulated body — to represent a device being used while in a pocket — the exposures measured well over the standard.

Samsung, based in South Korea and one of the world’s top smartphone makers, said in a statement: “Samsung devices sold in the United States comply with FCC regulations. Our devices are tested according to the same test protocols that are used across the industry.”

FCC officials would not comment on individual results from phones tested by the Tribune. They said that although the Tribune testing was not as comprehensive as what would be required for an official compliance report, they would examine some of the phone models in the newspaper’s investigation.

Assessing the risk
Around-the-clock cellphone use represents one of the most dramatic cultural shifts in decades. In 2009, an estimated 50 million smartphones were in active use in America, according to the wireless industry association CTIA. Today, there are 285 million. Twenty-nine percent of U.S. teens sleep with their cellphones in bed with them, according to a 2019 report by the nonprofit organization Common Sense Media.

Some researchers say safety efforts have not kept pace. “These days,” said Om Gandhi, an early researcher of cellphone radiation at the University of Utah, “exposure is from cradle to grave.”

Cellphones use radio waves to communicate with a vast network of fixed installations called base stations or cell towers. These radio waves are a form of electromagnetic radiation, in the same frequency range used by TVs and microwave ovens.

This kind of radiation, also known as radiofrequency energy, shouldn’t be confused with ionizing radiation, such as gamma rays and X-rays, which can strip electrons from atoms and cause serious biological harm, including cancer.

Radiofrequency energy from cellphones isn’t powerful enough to cause ionization, but at high levels it can heat biological tissue and cause harm. Eyes and testes are especially vulnerable because they do not dispel heat rapidly.
Less understood is whether people, especially children, are at risk for other health effects, including cancer, from exposure to low-level cellphone radiation over many years — potentially decades.

When cellphones hit the market in the 1980s, authorities focused on setting an exposure limit to address only the heating risks of cellphones. Scientists found that animals showed adverse effects when exposed to enough radiofrequency radiation to raise their body temperature by 1 degree Celsius. Authorities used this finding to help calculate a safety limit for humans, building in a 50-fold safety factor.

The final rule, adopted by the FCC in 1996, stated that cellphone users cannot potentially absorb more than 1.6 watts per kilogram averaged over one gram of tissue. To demonstrate compliance, phone makers were told to conduct two tests: when the devices were held against the head and when held up to an inch from the body.
A woman uses a cellphone at Lollapalooza this summer. New phone models must be tested for radiofrequency radiation before coming to market.
These testing methods didn’t address the anatomy of children and that of other vulnerable populations, such as pregnant women, said Joel Moskowitz, a cellphone expert at the University of California at Berkeley.

“It was like one-size-fits-all.” Plus, he said, “I don’t think anyone anticipated the smartphone and how it would become so integral to our lives.”
The devices became ubiquitous and were increasingly slipped into pockets rather than carried on belt clips. The number of scientific studies related to cellphone radiofrequency radiation soared.

Last fall, in one of the largest studies to date, the National Toxicology Program, a research group within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, found that high exposure to the kind of radiofrequency radiation used by cellphones was associated with “clear evidence” of cancerous heart tumors in male rats.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which shares regulatory responsibilities for cellphones with the FCC, responded to the study by assuring the public there was no danger to humans at “exposures at or under” safety limits. But the Tribune’s testing, disputed by manufacturers, found results from some cellphones over the exposure standard, particularly when tested close to the body.
Despite the changing ways people use phones, both the FCC and FDA said the current exposure limit protects the public. The agencies cite the 50-fold safety margin incorporated into the standard, as does CTIA, the industry association.

Over the limit
A half-hour drive north of San Diego, in the city of San Marcos, is RF Exposure Lab, a low-slung beige and white building that has the look and layout of a dentist’s office. Down the main hallway, past several doors, is a room with dozens of large containers labeled “Head Tissue” and “Body Tissue.”

Moulton, the lab owner, recalled how an intern once spilled some “body tissue” on himself and “freaked out because he thought it was real human tissue.” But it was just a mixture of mostly water, sugar and salt that simulates the electrical properties of the body. The liquid is used frequently at the lab, one of the few facilities in the U.S. that is accredited to test phones and other devices for radiofrequency radiation.
Different liquid mixtures are used to simulate the electrical properties of human tissue in radiofrequency radiation testing at RF Exposure Lab.
Moulton founded the lab in 2004 after serving as engineering director for chip-making giant Qualcomm. There, he said, he often wrestled with the radiation issue while helping design phones for Verizon.

The Tribune hired Moulton to conduct tests on 11 different models of cellphones, all purchased new by the newspaper. The tests took place in a 10-foot-by-10-foot room outfitted with copper screen windows to reduce electrical interference. In the middle of the room was a “phantom body,” an oval-shaped tub the size of a kitchen sink. Inside the tub was a body tissue mixture.

Moulton carefully positioned the first phone to be tested — an Apple iPhone 8 — under the phantom body so that it was 5 millimeters from the outside of the tub. This separation distance was the same gap selected by Apple in its tests and was in accordance with federal guidelines.

Using a base station simulator outside the room, Moulton placed a call to the iPhone 8 and adjusted the settings so the device was operating in the same band, frequency and channel that yielded the highest radiofrequency radiation reading reported by Apple to the FCC during the regulatory approval process — data that is available on the agency website.

The phone was now operating at full power, creating what was essentially a worst-case scenario in terms of radiofrequency radiation exposure. Typically, Moulton said, consumers do not experience exposure like this. But it could happen, he said, in limited situations, such as someone talking continuously in an area with a weak connection.
Jay Moulton preps equipment for cellphone testing at RF Exposure Lab.
A probe attached to a robotic arm moved up and down, and back and forth, in the fluid, taking 276 measurements of the radiation absorbed. After a few minutes, the probe stopped, and the results appeared on a nearby computer screen: The radiofrequency radiation level for the iPhone 8 measured 2.64 W/kg — more than double the highest value Apple reported to the FCC and well over the 1.6 safety limit.

Moulton said he was surprised. “Maybe the phone’s power sensor isn’t working,” he said. “It’s supposed to be on."

Almost all smartphones, he said, have power sensors — also known as proximity sensors — designed to detect when the device is touching or extremely close to a person. When that occurs, the phone is supposed to reduce power, decreasing radiofrequency radiation.

“Let’s see how this iPhone 7 does,” he said, picking up the next phone to be tested. He secured it 5 millimeters under the phantom body, placed a call to the phone and activated the probe.
Minutes later, the results were in: 2.81 W/kg, again over the limit. He tested another iPhone 7, getting a similar result: 2.50 W/kg.
“Still high,” Moulton said.
A probe attached to a robotic arm measures how much radiofrequency radiation from a cellphone is being absorbed by the simulated body tissue.
As more phones were tested, some results came in low. For instance, Samsung’s Galaxy S9, S8 and J3 phones measured under the standard.
But the lab had tested the Samsung phones relatively far away from the simulated body, because that’s how the manufacturer had tested the devices when seeking FCC approval.

Two Samsung phones were tested at 10 millimeters away and one at 15 millimeters — still within federal guidelines but much greater than the 5-millimeter gap chosen by Apple for its tests.
So how would the Samsung devices and other models fare when tested at a consistent distance, one even closer to the body?

The ‘pocket test'
To help answer this question, the Tribune cut out pieces of dress shirts, T-shirts, jeans, track pants and underwear and sent them to Moulton. His measurements indicated that phones carried in pants or shirt pockets typically would be no more than 2 millimeters from the body.

Moulton then conducted the same radiation tests, using the same methods and equipment. The only difference was that the phones were placed 2 millimeters from the phantom body — closer than any of the manufacturers’ own tests and much closer than the maximum distance allowed by the FCC.
Maybe, he said, the phones’ proximity sensors would kick in at this closer distance, and the radiofrequency radiation levels would drop accordingly.
But most phones still showed high levels. The four iPhone 7s tested at 2 millimeters produced results twice the safety standard. The iPhone 8 measured three times over; the Moto e5 Play from Motorola measured quadruple the standard.

And the Samsung Galaxy phones?

All three measured at more than twice the standard, with the Galaxy S8 registering 8.22 W/kg — five times the standard and the highest exposure level seen in any of the Tribune tests.

Only two phones came in under the standard in the 2-millimeter “pocket test": an iPhone 8 Plus and a BLU Vivo 5 Mini.

Moulton said he couldn’t be certain why any of the phones in the Tribune tests scored as they did.

Only the manufacturers, he said, could say for sure.
A visitor to Millennium Park in Chicago talks on a cellphone. “I don’t think anyone anticipated the smartphone and how it would become so integral to our lives,” said California cellphone expert Joel Moskowitz.
A visitor to Millennium Park in Chicago talks on a cellphone. “I don’t think anyone anticipated the smartphone and how it would become so integral to our lives,” said California cellphone expert Joel Moskowitz.

Seeking an explanation
Apple and Motorola disputed the Tribune’s testing protocol but declined to answer written questions.

Motorola officials did say one thing about the high exposure measurement for their Moto e5 Play, which came in nearly three times the safety limit in a 5-millimeter test at the Tribune lab: They speculated the test did not trigger the proximity sensors in that phone.

Though the Tribune’s lab had followed all FCC testing methods, the newspaper subsequently retested the Moto e5 Play, slightly altering the previous testing method to reflect Motorola’s input. The Tribune also retested a Moto g6 Play, which had scored right at the safety limit in the first test, as well as an additional model, a Moto e5.

When tested with these modified methods, the exposure results for all three phones were under the limit at the 5-millimeter distance.
Moulton said the two test results for the e5 Play indicate that its sensors may not work under certain conditions.

Motorola, which is based in Chicago, said in a statement that “all Motorola devices meet or exceed FCC requirements" but would not answer questions about its power sensors.

“Our power management techniques and expertise provide Motorola with a significant competitive advantage in the marketplace, and are therefore highly confidential,” the company’s statement said. “The Chicago Tribune’s third-party lab was not privy to the proprietary techniques from Motorola necessary to elicit accurate results.”

Rules set by the FCC require that radiofrequency radiation testing be done “in a manner that permits independent assessment.”

Motorola said that after receiving the Tribune’s test results, it had the models in question tested at its outside lab, which “found results were within the appropriate limits.” When the Tribune asked Motorola to explain how it tests its phones, the company declined. It also would not share its lab reports.
The Tribune also retested several iPhones based on Apple’s feedback. A reporter touched or grasped the phones for the duration of the tests, actions intended to activate sensors that are designed to reduce the devices’ power.
Tribune reporter Sam Roe grasps an iPhone during retesting at RF Exposure Lab in March. Apple had disputed the results of earlier tests, saying they were not conducted in a way that properly assesses iPhones.
In these tests, the iPhone 8 measured under the limit at 5 millimeters, but all four iPhone 7s did not.

In response to these results, Apple issued a statement saying the lab procedures in the Tribune testing still were improper. The company, based in Cupertino, Calif., wouldn’t say what methods were necessary.

FCC documents show that when Apple sought agency approval in 2016 to market the iPhone 7, the company promised to “take appropriate action” on any complaint “relating to the product’s compliance with requirements of the relevant standard.”

Apple, which said it validated the safety of its phones in response to the Tribune testing, would not provide any additional detail about the actions it took to evaluate the phones.

The company also wouldn’t comment on the information it provides the public on radiofrequency radiation. Consumers can find such information on their iPhones, but it’s difficult.

On the iPhone 7, for instance, a user would go to Settings > General > About > Legal > RF Exposure. There, the term “radiofrequency radiation” is not used but rather “RF energy,” a reference to radiofrequency exposure.
Around-the-clock cellphone use represents one of the most dramatic cultural changes in decades.
To reduce exposure, Apple suggests using “a hands-free option, such as the built-in speakerphone, the supplied headphones, or other similar accessories.”
For some past models, Apple gives additional advice. Apple’s website tells users of the iPhone 4 and 4s: “Carry iPhone at least 10mm away from your body to ensure exposure levels remain at or below the as-tested levels.” The site says those phones were tested at a distance of 10 millimeters.
When Apple submitted its application to the FCC to market the iPhone 7, the company included a similarly worded radiation statement, suggesting users carry the device at least 5 millimeters from the body, records show.
But iPhone 7s eventually sold to the public did not include that advice.
When the Tribune asked Apple in its written questions why that suggestion was not included, the company did not respond.

Sam Roe is an investigative reporter for the Chicago Tribune who writes about various topics. He was part of the reporting team that won the 2008 Pulitzer Prize for investigative reporting, and he was a Pulitzer finalist four other times. He also teaches at Columbia College Chicago and coaches baseball in Oak Park.  Email the author: sroe@colum.edu.



martedì 13 agosto 2019

FCC approva la ricarica elettrica a distanza.



Powercast Corporation ha annunciato che la sua tecnologia di alimentazione wireless wireless a lungo raggio basata su radiofrequenza (RF) ha ricevuto tre nuove certificazioni dalla Federal Communications Commission (FCC) - per un totale di sette dal 2007 - aggiungendo applicazioni al dettaglio all'esistente dell'azienda Omologazioni FCC per implementazioni in ambienti consumer, commerciali e industriali.

 La tecnologia di Powercast lavora nel campo lontano per caricare più dispositivi via etere, senza limiti di portata dalla FCC e senza cavi, tappeti di ricarica o linea di mira diretta necessari.


https://finance.yahoo.com/news/powercast-long-range-wireless-power-132700915.html?guccounter=1&guce_referrer=aHR0cHM6Ly9ncm91cHMuZ29vZ2xlLmNvbS9hL2hlYWx0aGFuZGVudmlyb25tZW50Lm9yZy9mb3J1bS8&guce_referrer_sig=AQAAAGgPReP-R3dA_n8ZUxLYGRbBNLMJf5-Pm7hu1ZlbmgxnGeLY4R79fAXCw604wjyhUTRNVF1LoGkY73gMpZyvI3eaEC5eqtkgnFi9Ml22QzpCbWNLdHLnrqE8SZgZ0PFc8Gkj4mNzb_F7KtrfERzqhKXVrcJ7NDdVwxKv89XlQYel



domenica 28 luglio 2019

Elon Musk si sta impegnando per renderci ... umanoidi












Elon Musk vuole collegare il cervello direttamente ai computer - a partire dal prossimo anno 


Il fondatore di Tesla e SpaceX ha annunciato l'obiettivo di impiantare chip nel cervello umano già dal prossimo anno per creare connessioni umane dirette ai computer.
Elon Musk, il miliardario futurista dietro SpaceX e Tesla, ha illustrato i suoi piani per collegare i cervelli umani direttamente ai computer , descrivendo una campagna per creare "simbiosi con intelligenza artificiale". Ha detto che il primo prototipo potrebbe essere impiantato in una persona entro la fine del prossimo anno.


Arrivare a questo obiettivo "richiederà molto tempo", ha detto Musk in una presentazione alla California Academy of Sciences di San Francisco, rilevando che è difficile ottenere l'approvazione federale per i dispositivi neurali impiantati. Ma i test sugli animali sono già in corso e "una scimmia è stata in grado di controllare il computer con il cervello", ha detto.

Musk ha fondato Neuralink Corp. a luglio 2016 per creare "interfacce cervello-macchina a larghezza di banda ultra-alta per collegare umani e computer". 
Nel 2017 la società ha dichiarato che il suo obiettivo iniziale era ideare interfacce cerebrali per alleviare i sintomi di patologie croniche.


Elon Musk wants to hook your brain directly up to computers — starting next yearThe Tesla and SpaceX founder announced a goal of implanting chips into human brains as early as next year to create direct human connections to computers.
Elon Musk, the futurist billionaire behind SpaceX and Tesla, outlined his plans to connect humans' brains directly to computers on Tuesday night, describing a campaign to create "symbiosis with artificial intelligence." He said the first prototype could be implanted in a person by the end of next year.
Arriving at that goal "will take a long time," Musk said in a presentation at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco, noting that securing federal approval for implanted neural devices is difficult. But testing on animals is already underway, and "a monkey has been able to control the computer with his brain," he said.
Musk founded Neuralink Corp. in July 2016 to create "ultra-high bandwidth brain-machine interfaces to connect humans and computers." The company said in 2017 that its initial goal was to devise brain interfaces to alleviate the symptoms of chronic medical conditions.
https://www.nbcnews.com/mach/tech/elon-musk-wants-hook-your-brain-directly-computers-starting-next-ncna1030631

sabato 27 luglio 2019

Due Stati Americani si pongono delle domande ...


Gli Stati USA NewHampshire ed Oregon hanno approvato delle leggi che prevedono delle commissioni tecniche alle quale è stato richiesto di capire quali danni possono venire alla popolazione dal 5G e dal wifi a bambini, a scuola.

Bene.   E' quello che chiediamo ... passare dalla certezza che  < non ci rilevanze scentifiche> al dubbio legato alla conoscenza!





Two states establish commissions to study wireless radiation health effects
New Hampshire commission to study 5G health effects; Oregon to study wireless radiation in schools

July 25, 2019

New Hampshire: House Bill 522 establishes a commission to study the environmental and health effects of 5G technology

Completed Legislative Action
Spectrum: Bipartisan Bill
Status: Passed on July 24 2019 - 100% progression
Action: 2019-07-24 - Signed by Governor Sununu 07/19/2019; Chapter 260; I. Sec. 2 Eff: 11/01/2020 II. Rem. Eff: 07/19/2019
Text: Latest bill text (Enrolled) [HTML]


HB 522 - VERSION ADOPTED BY BOTH BODIES
STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE
In the Year of Our Lord Two Thousand Nineteen
Be it Enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in General Court convened:
1  New Subdivision; Commission to Study the Environmental and Health Effects of Evolving 5G Technology.  Amend RSA 12-K by inserting after section 11 the following new subdivision:
Commission to Study the Environmental and Health Effects of Evolving 5G Technology
12-K:12  Commission Established.  There is established a commission to study the environmental and health effects of evolving 5G technology, which includes the use of earlier generation technologies.  Fifth generation, or 5G, wireless technology is intended to greatly increase device capability and connectivity but also may pose significant risks to humans, animals, and the environment due to increased radiofrequency radiation exposure.  The purpose of the study is to examine the advantages and risks associated with 5G technology, with a focus on its environmental impact and potential health effects, particularly on children, fetuses, the elderly, and those with existing health compromises.
12-K:13  Membership.
I.  The members of the commission shall be as follows:
(a)  Three members of the house of representatives, including one member from the house science, technology, and energy committee, and one member from the health, human services and elderly affairs committee, appointed by the speaker of the house of representatives.
(b)  Two members of the senate, appointed by the president of the senate.
(c)  A member of the public, appointed by the governor.
(d)  The attorney general, or designee.
(e)  Two members of the New Hampshire High Technology Council, appointed by the council.
(f)  One member representing the Business and Industry Association, appointed by the association.
(g)  One member of the New Hampshire Medical Society who specializes in environmental medicine and is familiar with electromagnetic radiation, appointed by the society.
(h)  One member representing the university system of New Hampshire knowledgeable in radiofrequency radiation, appointed by the chancellor.
(i)  One member of the cell phone/wireless technology industry, appointed by the president of the senate.
(j)  The commissioner of the department of health and human services, or designee.
(k)  One public member with expertise in the biological effects of radiofrequency radiation, appointed by the speaker of the house of representatives.
II.  Legislative members of the commission shall receive mileage at the legislative rate when attending to the duties of the commission.
III.  The members of the commission shall elect a chairperson from among the members.  The first meeting of the commission shall be called by the first-named house member.  The first meeting of the commission shall be held within 45 days of the effective date of this section.  Seven members of the commission shall constitute a quorum.
12-K:14  Duties and Reporting Requirement.  
I.  The commission shall:
(a)  Examine the health and environmental impacts from radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from the waves in the 30-300 gigahertz (GHZ) range of the electromagnetic spectrum, which falls somewhere between microwaves and infrared waves, and which are required with the rollout of 5G technology.
(b)  Assess the health and environmental impacts of 5G technology, which requires small cell towers to be placed at a distance of 250 meters from each other at telephone pole height from the ground and will operate in conjunction with the 3G and 4G technology infrastructure.
(c)  Receive testimony from the scientific community including but not limited to physicists and electrical engineers, the medical community including but not limited to cellular experts and oncologists, the wireless technology industry including but not limited to cell phone businesses and businesses working on the development autonomous vehicles which will rely on 5G technology, as well as other organizations and members of the public with an interest in 5G technology.  
(d)  Consider the following questions and the impact on New Hampshire citizens, municipalities, and state government of:
(1)  Why the insurance industry recognizes wireless radiation as a leading risk and has placed exclusions in their policies not covering damages caused by the pathological properties of electromagnetic radiation?
(2)  Why do cell phone manufacturers have in the legal section within the devise saying keep the phone at least 5mm from the body?
(3)  Why have 1,000s of peer-reviewed studies, including the recently published U.S. Toxicology Program 16-year $30 million study, that are showing a wide-range of statistically significant DNA damage, brain and heart tumors, infertility, and so many other ailments, being ignored by the Federal Communication Commission (FCC)?
(4)  Why are the FCC-sanctioned guidelines for public exposure to wireless radiation based only on the thermal effect on the temperature of the skin and do not account for the non-thermal, non-ionizing, biological effects of wireless radiation?
(5)  Why are the FCC radiofrequency exposure limits set for the United States 100 times higher than countries like Russia, China, Italy, Switzerland, and most of Eastern Europe?
(6)  Why did the World Health Organization (WHO) signify that wireless radiation is a Group B Possibly Carcinogenic to Humans category, a group that includes lead, thalidomide, and others, and why are some experts who sat on the WHO committee in 2011 now calling for it to be placed in the Group 1, which are known carcinogens, and why is such information being ignored by the FCC?
(7)  Why have more than 220 of the worlds leading scientists signed an appeal to the WHO and the United Nations to protect public health from wireless radiation and nothing has been done?
(8)  Why have the cumulative biological damaging effects of ever-growing numbers of pulse signals riding on the back of the electromagnetic sine waves not been explored, especially as the world embraces the Internet of Things, meaning all devices being connected by electromagnetic waves, and the exploration of the number of such pulse signals that will be created by implementation of 5G technology?
II.  The commission shall prepare and publish an interim and final report of its findings and recommendations.  The reports shall:
(a)  Outline the advantages of, and risks associated with, 5G technology running in conjunction with the 3G and 4G technology infrastructure.
(b)  Develop a strategy, if deemed necessary, to limit RF radiation exposure from 5G or lesser generation technology relying upon electromagnetic waves.
(c)  Include a public policy statement on 5G wireless systems, which either declares the technology safe or outlines actions required to protect the health of its citizens and environment.
(d)  Consider alternatives to 5G technology that will accelerate information flow speeds and volumes without the use of electromagnetic waves that emit high levels of radiation.
(e)  Provide any recommendations for proposed legislation developed by the commission.
III.  The commission shall submit the interim report required under paragraph II to the speaker of the house of representatives, the president of the senate, the house clerk, the senate clerk, the governor, and the state library on or before November 1, 2019, and shall submit the final report on or before November 1, 2020.
2  Repeal.  RSA 12-K:12 - 12-K:14 and the subdivision heading preceeding RSA 12-K:12, relative to commission to study the environmental and health effects of the evolving 5G technology, are repealed.
3  Effective Date.
I.  Section 2 of this act shall take effect November 1, 2020.
II.  The remainder of this act shall take effect upon its passage.


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Oregon Senate Bill 283: An act relating to exposure to radiation in schools in this state; and declaring an emergency

Directs Oregon Health Authority to review peer-reviewed, independently funded scientific studies of health effects of exposure to microwave radiation, particularly exposure that results from use of wireless network technologies in schools and to report results of review to interim committee of Legislative Assembly related to education not later than January 2, 2021.

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80th OREGON LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY--2019 Regular Session

Senate Bill 283: Enrolled Bill Text

AN ACT Relating to exposure to radiation in schools in this state; and declaring an emergency.

Be It Enacted by the People of the State of Oregon:

SECTION  1. (1)(a) The Oregon Health Authority shall:

(A) Review peer-reviewed, independently funded scientific studies of the health effects of exposure to microwave radiation, particularly exposure that results from  the use of wireless network technologies in schools or similar environments; and

(B) Report the results of the review to an interim committee of the Legislative Assembly related to education not later than January 2, 2021.

(b) The review described in paragraph (a) of this subsection must, at a minimum, consist of a literature review of peer-reviewed, independently funded scientific studies that examine the health effects of exposure to microwave radiation on children.

(2) The Department of Education shall develop recommendations to schools in this state for practices and alternative technologies that would reduce students’ exposure to microwave radiation that the review described in subsection (1) of this section identifies as harmful.

SECTION  2. This 2019 Act being necessary for the immediate preservation of the public peace, health and safety, an emergency is declared to exist, and this 2019  Act takes effect on its  passage.